This webpage reproduces part of a complete English translation of the. Rhetorica ad Herennium published in the Loeb Classical Library, Rhetorica ad Herennium has ratings and 27 reviews. Christopher said: I came to this book after reading Moonwalking with Einstein and taking an intere. The Rhetorica ad Herennium on LacusCurtius. The Text. As almost always, I am retyping the text rather than scanning it: not only to minimize.


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The Loeb Classical Library edition of Cicero is in thirty volumes. The author defines metaphor as the application of one object to another due to some indirect similarity, and allegory as the implication of multiple meanings to a phrase beyond the actual letter of the words used.

The Figures of Thought include: Distribution, which assigns specific roles to a number of objects or people in order to identify their place in the structure of the argument, and frankness of speech, in rhetorical ad herennium the speaker exercises his right to rhetorical ad herennium freely despite the presence of superiors.

Understatement occurs when a speaker downplays a particular advantage he might have over someone in order to avoid appearing arrogant.

Rhetorica ad Herennium

Vivid description describes the consequences of something with impressive and elaborate detail. Division separates rhetorical ad herennium the possible causes of something, and then resolves them with reasoning that is connected.

Accumulation is the connection of all the points made throughout an argument at the end of a speech, adding emphasis to the conclusion.


Dwelling on the point is the continuous repetition of the same point, while refining disguises dwelling on the same topic by continuously saying the same thing in new ways. Dialogue rhetorical ad herennium used as a figure of thought when the speaker puts words in the mouth of his opponent for the sake of rhetorical conversation to illustrate his point.


Comparisons point out similar traits in different people or objects, while exemplification is the citing of something done in the past along with the name of the person or thing that did it.

Rhetorical ad herennium identifies a person with a physical description rather than their name, while rhetorical ad herennium delineation identifies a person with noticeable elements of their character or personality.

Both of these figures allow the speaker to draw particular attentions to specific traits of that person. Personification assigns an inanimate object or an absent person rhetorical ad herennium to help the audience understand rhetorical ad herennium character.

Emphasis leaves more to be suspected about a topic than what is actually said, while conciseness is the precise expression of a thought using the least amount of language possible.

Chapter and Section Rhetorical ad herennium, Local Links My transcription rhetorical ad herennium a full complement of local links. Or we shall set forth the judgement rendered by others in an analogous case, whether that cause be of equal, or less, or greater importance; then we shall gradually approach our own cause and establish the analogy.

The same result is achieved if we deny an intention to discuss our opponents or some extraneous matter and yet, by subtly inserting the words, 29 do so.

Ad C. Herennium de ratione dicendi (Rhetorica ad Herennium)

Or we shall promise to speak otherwise than as we have prepared, and not to talk as others usually do; we shall briefly explain what the other speakers do and what we intend to do. But though this three-fold advantage — that the hearers constantly show themselves attentive, receptive, and well-disposed to us — is to be secured throughout the discourse, it must in the main be won by the Introduction to the cause.

In the Introduction of a cause we must make sure that our style is temperate rhetorical ad herennium that the words are in current use, 36 so that the discourse seems unprepared. That Introduction, again, is faulty which the opponent can turn to his own use against you.

And again that is faulty which has been rhetorical ad herennium in too laboured a style, or is too long; and that which does not appear to have grown out rhetorical ad herennium the cause itself in such a way as to have an intimate connection with the Statement of Facts; and, finally, that which fails to make the hearer well-disposed or receptive or attentive.

Rhetorica ad Herennium by Marcus Tullius Cicero

But it is in practice exercises that these types will be worked out. Furthermore, we must guard against repeating immediately what we have said already, as in the following: Here we must see that our language is not confused, 56 involved, or unfamiliar, that we do not shift to rhetorical ad herennium subject, that we do not trace the affair back to its remotest beginning, nor carry it too far forward, and that we do not omit rhetorical ad herennium pertinent.


If the matter is true, all these precautions rhetorical ad herennium none the less be observed in the Statement of Facts, for often the truth cannot gain credence otherwise. And if the matter is fictitious, these measures will have to be observed all the more scrupulously.

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When The Statement of Facts has been brought to an end, we ought first to make clear what we and our opponents agree upon, if there is agreement on the points useful to us, 61 and what remains contested, as follows: Rhetorical ad herennium did rhetorical ad herennium have the right to commit the deed, and was he justified in committing it?

That is in dispute.

Rhetorica ad Herennium

The number ought not to exceed three; for otherwise, besides the danger that we may at rhetorical ad herennium time include in the speech more or fewer points than we enumerated, 66 it instils in the hearer the suspicion of premeditation and artifice, 67 and this robs the speech of conviction.

The Exposition consists in setting forth, briefly and completely, the points rhetorical ad herennium intend to discuss. Others make these Types of Issue four.